Mass Media Printed by Non-Governmental Ecological Organizations.

European Principles and Criteria for Environment Protection.

Ecology, Education and Information.


Tenth Anniversary of the Journal of Balkan Ecology


Sofia, 25-26 October 2007




Welcome to our Meeting dedicated to the printed ecological mass media and the Tenth Anniversary of the Journal of Balkan Ecology.


1. the beginning

In 1997, on the initiative of Prof. Ivan Garbouchev and Dipl. Eng. Yllina Dimitrova, a group of Bulgarian scientists created the scientific and applied JOURNAL OF BALKAN ECOLOGY. The past 10 year period justifies the hopes of this group of scientists and all active and public-spirited people for progress in the printed ecological media published by organizations of the civil society.

On behalf of the Editorial Board as scientific Editor-in-Chief, I would like to thank cordially the founders of the Journal of Balkan Ecology, the President and the Board of the Balkan Ecological Federation, the Manager of the PublishScieSet-Eco (PSSE), the President of Association of Bulgarian Ecologists (ABECOL) for their work and efforts to overcome the difficulties met in publishing this Journal.

Essential contribution in determining the aims and tasks of the Journal was done by Prof. Simeon Nedialkov, Doctor of Biological Sciences, who is one of the most well-known Bulgarian ecologists around the world, having a great theoretical, pedagogical and practical experience. He is founder and leader of the first Institute of Ecology in Bulgaria.

We thank the Board of the European Ecological Federation (EEF) for the meeting carried out with the Balkan Ecological Federation (BEF) to exchange experience in Sofia. We thank the European Environment Agency (EEA), which is an information body of the European Union (EU), for the granted valuable ecological information in the last years. We thank the Sofia Association for Nature Protection with President Prof. G. Pouhalev and Vice-President Assoc. Prof. Yancho Naidenov for the help in organizing this Meeting.

In Bulgaria, Non-Governmental organizations (NGO) were founded at the beginning of the Bulgarian Renaissance in the 19th century, when community cultural centers were created. The first Civil Ecological organizations (CEO) were the Aleko Konstantinov Association (1889); the Association for Hunting and Fishing (1891); the Union for Nature Protection (1927) and many others. Some of them continue their activity up to now.

The ecological organizations carry out their activity independently or together with other national and international organizations, state organs, scientific institutions and business firms. We should mention their insufficient utilization of church and business possibilities. The ecological organizations should cooperate with the church, whose rituals and symbolism, norms and traditions can contribute to protecting the nature, the man and the human spirit for achieving a more sustainable world.

The business can become "more and more green". It means that the business have to keep the regulations for sustainable consumption of the natural resources in order to protect them, and if possible, to reproduce them for the future generations.

Our meeting will focus on the State, Successes and Problems of the Printed Mass Media of Non-Governmental Ecological Organizations (NGEO).

We know that one of the indicators for availability of democracy in a country is the recognition of the non-Governmental organizations (NGO) and the civil society as equal in value partners of the state media. This is necessary to prepare the citizens, including the administrative personnel and politicians, for common activities in solving regional and global ecological problems. It means to accomplish common activities by the state and the civil society.

In Bulgaria, there are some hundreds of non-Governmental ecological organizations with non-economic purpose, which are legally registered. From them, about 150 organizations are publishing bulletins, journals, educational programs for citizens and agitation materials.

Ecological information publishing meets financial difficulties and shortage of highly qualified specialists. The insufficient co-ordination and collaboration among the non-Governmental ecological organizations (NGEO), state and private mass media in Bulgaria and around the world make difficult the active participation in the ecological press.


I will focus your attention to the scientific and applied JOURNAL OF BALKAN ECOLOGY, whose 10th Anniversary Jubilee is the reason for carrying out the present meeting about experience exchange and discussion on the role of the ecological press published by the non-Governmental ecological organizations (NGEO).


2. ecological subjects

Journal of Balkan Ecology is an international journal for scientific, educational and applied information covering all aspects of the processes concerning the environmental quality of our planet and particularly the Balkan countries. The Journal is dedicated to the fundamental and technological research on main problems of the natural and anthropogenetic ecosystems in all scientific areas. It is devoted to the protection and improvement of environmental quality.

The Journal of Balkan Ecology comprises the significant ecological achievements both in the Balkan countries and around the world. It establishes communication with the international ecological organizations to up-date their activity in these countries. The Journal serves to interchange information concerning ecologically grounded decisions and actions. It stresses on the contamination sources; the monitoring of physical, chemical and biological pollutants; the media subjected to different kinds of pollution; and the technologies for improving the environment.

The Journal of Balkan Ecology keeps an eye on the modern attainments in the following topics: (1) Food Safety; (2) Soil Processes; (3) Pollutant Transport; (4) Land Use; (5) Water Quality; (6) Aquatic Processes; (7) Biodegradation and Bioremediation; (8) Atmospheric Pollution; (9) Living Creature and Environment Interactions in the Ecosystems; (10) Heavy and Transition Metals in the Environment; (11) Organic Chemicals in the Environment; (12) Waste Management; (13) Ecological Education and Legislation; (14) Ecology and Economics; (15) Ecology and Philosophy; (16) Ecology and Industry; (17) Ecology and Transport; (18) Ecology and Energy Production; (19) Ecology, Medicine and Health; (20) Problems of the Natural Cultural Heritage; (21) Ecology and Religion.


3. printed organ, Editorial Board and periodicity

The Journal of Balkan Ecology is cooperatively published by the non-Governmental organizations: Balkan Ecological Federation (BEF) with President Academician A. Alexandrov; Association of Bulgarian Ecologists (ABECOL) with President Prof. S. Nedialkov and private PublishScieSet-Eco (PSSE) with Manager Dipl. Eng. Y. Dimitrova.

The Journal of Balkan Ecology was founded by a group of Bulgarian scientists, who were invited by Prof. Ivan Garbouchev in the Publishing House PublishScieSet-Agri (PSSA) located in the territory of the Poushkarov Institute for Soil Science and Ecology in Sofia in 1997. At this meeting, Prof. Ilia Christov (Doctor of Biological Sciences and Physicist) was selected to be the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Balkan Ecology.

Advisable for out Meeting is to mention the names of the Founders of the Journal of Balkan Ecology: Prof. Ivan Garbouchev, Dipl. Eng. Yllina Dimitrova, Acad. Alexander Alexandrov, Prof. Simeon Nedialkov, Prof. Georgi Tzankov, Prof. Alexander Sadovski, Prof. Ilia Christov, Prof. Ibrahim Kassimiv, Prof. Stavri Stoyanov, Prof. Detelin Dachev and Prof. Metodi Teoharov. Later, the Founders invited other Bulgarian and foreign scientists, whose CVs and photographs are published in the v. 1, Nos. 1 and 2 (1998) of the Journal. The foreign scientists were officially invited to enter the Editorial Board of the Journal. They sent their agreements and evaluations with written answers, which were published in the first number of the Journal.

The First book was prepared by the Editor-in-Chief under the leadership of Prof. I. Garbouchev, who did not see it published, because of his untimely decease.

The international team of the Editorial Board includes: Operational group, Members and Associated Members. The operational group works directly with the authors of paper contributions. It specifies the profile of each paper and two Members of the Editorial Board, who give professional opinion about it. Then, the Editor-in-Chief accomplishes detailed editing of each paper. He contacts with the authors of paper and the Members directly by appointing place and time of a meeting by phone and using E-mail messages depending on their place of residence around the world.

Now, the Editorial Board includes 48 Members: of them 28 are Bulgarian and 20 Ц foreign, all well-known scientists. The foreign scientists are 42 % of the total number of Members. They work in different areas of ecology, and are 2 from Albania; 2 from Austria; 1 from Belgium; 1 from Bosnia and Herzegovina; 3 from Greece; 2 from Macedonia; 1 from Norway; 2 from Romania; 2 from Serbia; 1 from Turkey; 2 from USA; 1 from Sweden.

The periodicity of the Journal is kept the same in all 10 years. It is 4 issues (books) per year with a volume of 7 printer's sheets.


4. Contribution of papers and dissemination of the journal

We receive many papers for considering and publishing in the Journal. They are sent by scientists, working in different countries around the world. These countries are (alphabetically): Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Holland, Hungary, Iran, Italy, Kenya, Macedonia, Montenegro, Orthodox Patriarchate (Istanbul, Turkey), Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Syria, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and others.

The Journal of Balkan Ecology is reviewed and indexed by many great information companies all over the world. One of them is the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), P. O. Box 3012, 2540 Olentangy River Road, Columbus, Ohio, USA. It is reviewed and indexed in Ankara, Athens, Belgrade, Boston, Brussels, Bucharest, Columbus (Ohio), Lisse, London, Moscow, Nanterre, New York, Paris, Sofia and Washington D. C.

The issues of the Journal are available in: the Library of European Commission, Brussels, Belgium; Bibliotheque de Documentation Internationale Contemporaine, Centre Universitaire, Nanterre, France; the Library of Congress, Washington D. C.; the American Chemical Society, Chemical Abstracts Service Co., Columbus, (USA); the St. Kiril and Metodiy National Library of Bulgaria, Sofia, Bulgaria; the Library of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation; the National Library of Romania, Bucharest, Romania; National Library of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia; AGRIS, and many other libraries around the world.

We invite the scientists and libraries all over the world to subscribe to the Journal of Balkan Ecology in order to publish free of charge in the Journal. We invite all library officers to subscribe their departments, faculties, institutes and universities.

We will invite scientists of newly subscribed institutes and universities to enter the international team of the Editorial Board.


5. Style, structure and criteria for accepting paper

The style and structure of the Journal of Balkan Ecology are result from both the basic requirements towards all received papers and the kinds of rubrics (headings), which include:

(a) papers presenting scientific analyses, surveys, scientific formulations of important ecological problems and results from implementation of ecological projects;

(b) papers presenting scientific results from concrete investigations;

(c) papers, which are short communications;

(d) announcements about scientific meetings, conferences and symposia, which are planned in different countries around the world in near future;

(e) abstracts about new books and periodicals published in different countries;

(f) photographs in colour of Balkan reserves with explanatory text;

(g) curriculum vitae (CV) with photo of the new Members of Editorial Board;

(h) ecoadvertisements and letters to the Editor-in-Chief.

An element of the style of the Journal is the availability of list of the titles of papers published in the year and the authors index in the last issue of same year.

The basic criterion for accepting and publishing a paper is the satisfaction of requirements concerning the essence, contents and form of the paper. These requirements are precisely presented in each book of the Journal. Moreover, detailed guidelines for preparing the paper are exposed in the rubric short communications of Journal.

Very important criterion for accepting a paper is the clear formulation of each sentence of the manuscript in English:

▲ clear formulation of the ecological problem solved in the paper;

clear answer of the question how this problem is solved through the study considered (approach, methods, treatments, etc.);

▲ clear formulation of the results obtained in both detailed and short forms correspondingly presented in the rubrics: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION and conclusion;

▲ logical explanation and interpretation of the data obtained, non-admission of contradictory assertions;

▲ use of contemporary and correct English language. The Journal accepts the exact English interpretation of the essence and the meaning of the original language sentences in the papers.

After reviewing and editing the paper, we show the main corrections, which must be taken into account by the author(s). After the actual improvement of the notes made by the two Members and the Editor-in-Chief, the paper is accepted for publishing. If the notes are rejected by the author(s), the paper remains set aside.

Each published paper is a result from the mutual efforts of author(s), editor and two professional members of the Board, who are introduced in the paper.


6. english language

The Journal of Balkan Ecology is published in English. The reasons are as follows. Almost all international forums (symposia, conferences and congresses), which are carried out in the countries of the European union (EU) and around the world, use the English language.

One language is needed for scientists to actively communicate on the global ecological topics, for exchanging scientific and applied results, for estimating achievements obtained around the world.

To take a serious view of vitally important ecological problems, the mankind needs a natural and right overcoming of the national zeal and political differences concerning the language for world communication, which is already used and it practically serves as international mean for scientific, commercial and other association among different nations and countries.

The most widespread and used by the scientists in Europe, America, Australia, Asia and Africa is the English language. Moreover, a lot of great and small of territory states officially or unofficially accepted this language. In China, this language is introduced as the second: all official inscriptions and announcements in the cities are Chinese and English. India officially speaks and writes in English. In Belgium, together with the official languages, the foreigner can realize good communication using English. The Russian scientific and cultural society, and businessmen actively apply this language. Very important fact for our country is that Bulgaria entered the European union (EU), where one of the basic official languages is English.


7. balkan reserves

The Journal of Balkan Ecology presented many biosphere reserves, publishing photographs in colour with explaining text, which are included in the List of UNESCO and are located in the Balkan peninsula. These are: Parangalitza (Rila mountain); Srebarna (near Silistra city); Kamchia; Bayovi Dupki (Pirin mountain); Slavianka; Steneto (near the town of Troyan); Bistrishko Branishte (Vitosha mountain); Boatin (in the central Balkan mountain); Dupkata (Rhodopes mountain); Lopoushna (near to the border between Bulgaria and Turkey); Tzarichina (Balkan mountain); Byala River (Balkan mountain); Koupena (near the town of Peshtera); Mantaritza (Rhodopes mountain); Marichini Lakes (Rila mountain); and others. We published photographs of biologically recovered lands in the region of Maritza East.


8. finances and estimation

The Journal of Balkan Ecology is not and never was subsidized. The subscription and authors fees are the financial base of its existence.

The researchers working at institutions and organizations, which are subscribed to the Journal during the current year, can publish papers free of charge, independently where they live and work around the world. Many libraries and individual scientists were and are subscribed to the Journal for different years.

Great information companies, universities and institutes from many countries are interested in and read the Journal. This special estimate of the Journal was gained thanks to the hundreds invitation letters sent by the Editor-in-Chief to many Governmental institution and non-Governmental organizations around the world.

Very high evaluation and admiration were expressed by Dr. Engin Ural, General Secretary of the Turkish Environment Foundation (TEF), and his personnel reviewing the Journal during the International Conference on Ecological Problems in the Countries of Black Sea Region, which took place in Istanbul in 2001. I would like to thank Dr. Ural and the Foundation for the one-time financial aid to the Journal of Balkan Ecology through the Association of the Bulgarian Ecologists (ABECOL).

Scientists around the world appreciated the initiative about the appearance of Journal of Balkan Ecology. We published these evaluations in the first book of the Journal (volume 1, No. 1, 1998, page 123).

Prof. K. Chartzoulakis from the Institute of Subtropical Plants and Olive Trees of Chania, National Agricultural Research Foundation, Hellenic Republic sent the following letter to the Editor-in-Chief: "Thank you very much for your kind invitation to participate in the international team of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Balkan Ecology, which I accept with pleasure. I guess that it is a new journal, covering the gap existing in environmental quality and ecology research publications in our region Balkan Peninsula. From this point of view, I congratulate you and the Bulgarian Editorial Board for taking this initiative. From my part, I will distribute the prospectus of the journal to scientists working in related subjects and encourage them to submit scientific papers for publication in the journal.

We received positive evaluations from Prof. T. Kupusovic (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Assoc. Prof. K. Cara and Assoc. Prof. V. Kovaci (Albania); Prof. D. Velemis and Prof. D. Tsadilas (Greece); Prof. S. Anac (Turkey) and others.


9. Eco-advertisements

The ecological advertisements in the printed organs are popular and useful for the society. They practically help people to solve local and regional ecological problems.

In the Journal of Balkan Ecology, we published advertisements in colour for the AQUACHIM firm, which is official partner of the German firms MERCK and GRAF-FORTUNA, and the Austrian SEIBOLD; POVVIK-EP Ltd., which offers estimates of pollutant impact on the environment and waste management; AIR CONCORDE AVIATION Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria, which makes services for agriculture with airplanes; FEDERATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL UNIONS, Sofia; BULGARIAN TOURISM, which is member of the World Tourism Organization (WTO) and the European Travel Commission.


10. Ecology reatures

Through a lot of papers, the Journal of Balkan Ecology helps to explain and clarify the features of ecology as science and practice. The interaction of ecology with the other sciences and with the human activity is complicated and of many aspects.

Some authors do not accept ecology as science with specific subject and methodology. Others consider that it is a part of biology and develops in the frames of it. There are many problems to be discussed.

It is necessary to make popular the essence and the features of ecology and its place among the classical, medical, agrarian and forest sciences, and its interaction with them, not only for the scientists, but also for the whole society. The Journal contributes to the right formulation of ecological problems, reflects the discussions, makes popular the contemporary scientific visions, achievements and terminology around the world.

Essence information on fundamental terms, concepts and ideas is offered in the ENVIRONMENT ENCYCLOPEDIA AND DIRECTORY Second Edition in 1998, PUBLISHED BY THE EUROPA PUBLICATIONS Ltd., in the United Kingdom. It gives good profound answers of many questions and helps the right understanding of the special place and role of ecology as science about our home in individual, regional and global sense.

In the mentioned encyclopedia, we can read that Ecology has come to be more broadly defined as science on the interrelationship between all living things and their environments. The ecologist needs to have a command of physics, chemistry and statistics, as well as biology. Hence, the environmental sciences, which depend on ecological research, were the first interdisciplinary sciences.

Solving many global problems of our planet is in the area and the possibilities of the modern ecology, which is equipped with the necessary achievements made by the classic sciences as physics, chemistry, biology and applied mathematics, and those made by the medical, agrarian, forest and other sciences. The global themes, on which applied biophysics and biochemistry are working, are of great importance to ecology. Here are some of them:

creating methods and technologies for control, protection and recovering of the human environment, which is necessary for man life;

further developing of the prophylactics, diagnostics, maintenance and recovery of human health;

searching for optimal variants to ensure the mankind with ecologically pure plant and animal products;

discovering and using new biological sources to obtain energy avoiding the pollution of environment.


11. european principles and criteria for protecting

human environment

We take into consideration and practically apply in our activity the European policy for protecting the environment, which development is based on the following principles.

The Principle of Sustainability is defined as economic and social development of the mankind under created conditions of avoiding or minimizing the environment pollution and reasonable using the natural resources. This principle requires a legislative control and limitation of the environment deterioration. It is well-known that the human activity in the spheres of industry, energy producing, transport, agriculture and others inserts negative influence on the environment.

The Principle of Market Mechanism reads as follows: the owner of source of pollutants emitted in the environment (atmosphere, water basins and soil) pays additional taxes. This principle changes the behaviour of owners and managers of the enterprises and agricultural farms.

The Principle of Integrating the care for the mankind environment in a mutual policy and responsibility among the Government, the business and the civil society, using economic tools.

The Principle of Purposeful Subsidy in the Frame of the European Union (EU) is applied to concentrate financial funds and activities for solving ecological problems on the EU level related to inner market, border interstate relations, sharing common natural resources, and rapprochement between countries in the Union.

The Principle of World Collaboration is based on both the acceptance of global ecological problems and the encouragement of measures for solving them. Some of these problems are related to: (a) climatic change; (b) ozone layer destroying; (c) biodiversity reducing; (d) deforestation of our planet; and (e) atmosphere, water and soil pollution. The collaboration is many-sided. It is taking place in the frames of the international institutions and as a help to the developing countries.

The Principle of Treaties for the European Community regularizes not only the mutual rights and duties of the states-members, but also those of the their citizens and legal entities.


12. perspectives of development

The perspectives of developing both the Journal of Balkan Ecology and the rest ecological press of the non-Governmental organizations, we should try to find in the following aspects.

In the first rubric Scientific Surveys, Projects, Ecological Problems of the Journal, together with the valuable scientific analyses and facts, with priority, we should publish papers related to the topics and purposes of the European network NATURE 2000 aimed at protecting the environment, such as:

(a) managing the objects included in NATURE 2000;

(b) accomplishing agricultural activity in areas included in NATURE 2000;

(c) controlling the forests included in NATURE 2000;

(d) implementing activities related to recreation in objects included in NATURE 2000;

(e) developing and estimating new projects for public utilities in these objects;

(f) removing the myths and apprehension related to NATURE 2000.

In the same rubric, we should publish with priority papers considering topics on the National Strategies Concerning the Environment in the Countries of the European Union for2005 Ц 2014, such as :

(1) ensuring good quality and enough amount of water for different purposes;

(2) reaching and keeping a high quality of the human environment in the settlements;

(3) protecting the natural heritage and keeping rich biological diversity;

(4) integrating the ecological, economic and social policies on regional and state levels for sustainable development;

(5) ensuring and effectively managing the human environment;

(6) accomplishing the engagements of each country for solving global ecological problems.


The Journal of Balkan Ecology will be obliged to:

Х realize further thematic, personnel and financial strengthening;

Х expand the informational links with the national and international ecological organizations, exchange experience with printed ecological media and ensure papers reflecting the innovations around the world for all rubrics;

Х up-date the List of Members of the Editorial Board helping the Journal both thematically and financially through new subscribers of institutions and organizations; We have to mention that, despite the dozens of written invitations to non-Governmental organizations around the world for subscription to the Journal, now we have no subscribers of such organizations;

Х up-date the links of the Journal with non-Governmental organizations located not only in the Balkan peninsula, but also in the European Union and the rest parts of the world. We need collaboration and well-meaning competition;

Х widen the subscriber list with names of state organs, academies of sciences, institutes, universities, business firms, and non-Governmental organizations for offering necessary ecological information and creating correct ecological policy and practice;

Х search for new forms and tools for stimulating the authors through rewarding the most topical and the best written paper published in the Journal;

Х look for the possibilities of creating an International Foundation with activity subject the development of ecological mass media, lending a helping hand to the Journal and awarding and stimulating the young authors.

We cordially congratulate you and all readers, authors and Members of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Balkan Ecology on its 10th Anniversary Jubilee.



25-26 October 2007




Prof. Ilia Christov, D. Sc.