Last updated: 01.10.2005.

Contribution of Higher Education Institutions to

Bulgarian Integration Into the European Education Area

Iordanka Kouzmanova



            The paper analyzes the state-of-the-art and the problems of higher education in Bulgaria. The objectives discussed are: the perspectives for the development of Bulgarian universities in the light of the Bologna process and Berlin communiqué about the realization of the European higher education area; the changes needed for quality improvement and increasing the competitiveness of higher education in Bulgaria; the necessity of identifying the contact points between university management and student organizations.

The following conclusions can be drawn on the basis of the presented data:

1/ Meeting the requirements in relation with the accession of Bulgaria to the EU is an indispensable part of the whole development of the reform in higher education.

2/ The Bologna declaration issues are compulsory elements for the integration of all the European countries, their realization being related to a number of additional processes in the European educational reform (Lisbon, Prague).

3/ Bulgaria has fully achieved the formal compliance with the European dimensions set in the Bologna process, thus manifesting a high degree of political readiness to participate actively in the construction of the European higher education area.

4/ It is necessary to further accelerate the processes of changing the interrelation between higher education and the future realization of the graduates.

5/ The process of European integration requires above all well thought national approach to the common goals with the clear consciousness that the common European policy in the area of higher education is and will remain additional, directing, however, not replacing the national approach.







Academic Journals and their Impact Factor

Borislav V. Toshev



The new scientific results should be published. The main functions of the academic journals are: i) to produce, disseminate and exchange the scientific knowledge; ii) to rank research in order to assist the distribution of the research funds and iii) to facilitate the employment and promotion of the people involved in science. The system of scientific periodicals has functioned in two levels. The first level includes both the primary research journals and scholarly journals with more expanded audience. The second level includes the secondary research journals. It is just the world system of abstracting, indexing and evaluation of the scientific results. The assessment of the academic journals is by their involvement in Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Science Citation Index and Art and Humanities Citation Index. The reasons for such a structure of the system and the ways of its functioning are described and commented. Citation analysis is of an importance mainly because it is heavily used in science policy and research evaluation professionals. The most popular indicators in such considerations are the impact factor IF, the immediacy index II and the response time t1. The meaning and application of these parameters are explained. The incorrect use of the impact factor in the Bulgarian evaluation practice is mentioned. Two new indicators that would characterize quantitatively the scientific achievements of the researchers are proposed: efficiency e=nk, n and k number of the authors publications and their citations, respectively, and personal impact factor PIF=q/m where q is the number of citations in a given year of m authors publications, published in two previous years.





The European Policy of Mainstreaming Gender Equality:

Women and Science in Bulgaria

Nikolina Sretenova



         This paper aims to provide some insights in the gender gap in the R&D and HE (Higher Education) sectors in Bulgaria during the communist time, transitional period (1990-2000) as well as to focus attention on the current situation of women in science in the context of Enlargement. Against this background it denounces some myths and popular delusions related with the gender equality issue in the contemporary Bulgarian society.

         The other aim of the paper is to highlight the policy of mainstreaming gender equality implemented from the European Commission Directorate-General for Research within the FP5 and the FP6 of the EU.

The paper also focuses attention on the activity of the ENWISE (Enlarge Women In Science to East) Expert Group. The Group was launched by the Research Directorate-General in 2002 under the action No. 27 of the Action Plan of the Science and Society Programme of the FP6. The ENWISE Expert Group involves independent experts from 10 post-communist countries: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia plus one expert from the former GDR and one expert for the Balkan region. Its objective is the assessing of the conditions and status of women scientists in the Central and Eastern European countries and the Baltic States. The ENWISE Expert Group produced a report Waste of talents: turning private struggles into public issue. Women and Science in the Enwise countries. The ENWISE Report appeared in English as European Commission edition (ISBN 92-894-6750-9, EC, 2004) and till the end of 2004 it will appear in the languages of the participating countries, i.e. in Bulgarian as well.  The Report makes recommendations to a series of stakeholders: the Commission, the European Parliament, the Enwise countries, as well as the current EU Member States and organizations that educate, fund and employ scientists.







Organizational and Management Improvement of  Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

through the  Six Sigma Approach 

Lidia Galabova



The paper is aimed at researching the historical background and theoretical development of the Six Sigma pproach in the context of the contemporary management and engineering science. It makes a comparative review of the goals and the role of quality improvement initiatives like ISO 9000, Quality Awards and Six Sigma. The necessity and benefits of implementing the Six Sigma Approach under the conditions of the contemporary small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) are clarified.

The paper looks at the changing business environment and the possibility of applying the Six Sigma not only as a tool for quality improvement, but as a management approach as well. The possibilities for continuous organization and management development due to the Six Sigma implementation are reviewed.







Copyright 2001 USB